Describing the period between 1917 and 1931, this thesis maps the emerging global historical awareness among students of anticolonial struggles elsewhere, and describes how they attempted to establish personal relations with anticolonial movements in cities such as Paris, Brussels and Berlin. Among other things, the chapters shed light on Mohammad Hatta’s activities within the League against Imperialism, the ambivalent attitude of Indonesian nationalists towards European communism, and the international reception of the communist revolt on Java and Sumatra in 1926-1927. Thus, the history of Indonesian nationalism is connected to a larger story of anticolonialism worldwide.
The thesis is structured around the adventures of a few individual members of the Perhimpoenan Indonesia in a foreign environment: Ratu Langie in Zürich, Mononutu in Paris, Hatta and Semaoen in Brussels, and Soebardjo in Berlin. The applied micro-historical approach makes it possible to examine the complex reality of movement building, beyond superficial suggestions of contact and collaboration. Moreover, ‘Behind the Banner of Unity’ explores the dynamics between different movements on the international stage, beyond propagandistic claims of harmony and solidarity.
Thesis (complete) (Embargo until 15 June 2018)
Introduction (Embargo until 15 June 2018)
Ch. 1. From ‘Indische Vereeniging’ to ‘Perhimpoenan Indonesia’: Sociability and mobilisation (Embargo until 15 June 2018)
Ch. 2. Regionalism, nationalism, internationalism: Ratu Langie in Zürich (Embargo until 15 June 2018)
Ch. 3. Ambassador without a country: Mononutu in Paris (Embargo until 15 June 2018)
Ch. 4. Nationalising a revolt, globalising a struggle: Hatta and Semaoen in Brussels (Embargo until 15 June 2018)
Ch. 5. Repression and refuge: Soebardjo in Berlin (Embargo until 15 June 2018)
Ch. 6. From national revolutionaries to national reformists: Indonesians in Europe (Embargo until 15 June 2018)
Epilogue (Embargo until 15 June 2018)
Conclusion (Embargo until 15 June 2018)
Appendix: Original source texts (Embargo until 15 June 2018)
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