To design and validate a practical questionnaire for clinicians, to identify barriers and facilitators for
evidence-based practice (EBP), that is, the use of research evidence in patient care. The inventory is ultimately intended
for departments to assess local conditions for EBP, to aim and evaluate efforts at improving or maximizing EBP.
Design and Setting
We derived candidate items from existing EBP scales, psychology, and behavioral economics. In an online
Delphi study, 537 international expert clinicians, researchers, teachers, and policymakers interested in EBP identified items
with sufficient face and content validity. We piloted and validated the resulting draft inventory among 127 clinicians from
various specialties and career stages.
The Delphi study started with 114 items and resulted in a draft
inventory with 29 items in five dimensions. During the pilot, the inventory was easy to complete within 15 minutes and the
items showed sufficient response variation. In four of five dimensions, test-retest reliability was substantial to almost
perfect and the power to discriminate between groups with different expertise was adequate, whereas internal consistency showed
that the items generally measured the same construct. On the basis of internal consistency and factor analysis, we excluded
three items. The final EBP inventory consists of 26 items in five dimensions: decision making, subjective norm, attitude,
perceived behavior control, and intention and behavior.
Discussion and Conclusion
The EBP inventory was developed
with support of EBP experts and validated among various academic clinicians. It shows adequate face and content validity,
internal consistency, test-retest reliability, discriminative power, and completion will take <15 minutes. We recommend
further evaluation of its value in field trials.