- On the development of implicit and control processes in relation to substance use in adolescence
- Current Addiction Reports
- Volume | Issue number
- 2 | 2
- Pages (from-to)
- Document type
- Faculty of Social and Behavioural Sciences (FMG)
- Psychology Research Institute (PsyRes)
Adolescence is a period in which brain structures involved in motivation and cognitive control continue to develop and also a period in which many youth begin substance use. Dual-process models propose that, among substance users, implicit or automatically activated neurocognitive processes gain in relative influence on substance use behavior, while the influence of cognitive control or reflective processes weakens. There is evidence that a variety of implicit cognitive processes, such as attentional bias, biased action tendencies (approach bias), memory bias and at a neural level, cue reactivity, are associated with adolescent substance use. The impact of these implicit processes on the further development of addictive behaviors appears to depend on moderating factors, such as (premorbid) executive control functions. Clear negative effects of adolescent substance use on executive control functions generally have not been found using behavioral tasks, although some studies have identified subtle and specific effects on cognitive functioning.
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