Background: Breast cancer-related lymphoedema can be a debilitating long-term sequela of breast cancer treatment. Several
studies have investigated the effectiveness of different treatment strategies to reduce the risk of breast cancer-related
Objectives: To assess the effects of conservative (non-surgical and non-pharmacological) interventions
for preventing clinically-detectable upper-limb lymphoedema after breast cancer treatment.
Search methods: We searched
the Cochrane Breast Cancer Group's (CBCG) Specialised Register, CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PEDro, PsycINFO, and the
World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform in May 2013. Reference lists of included trials
and other systematic reviews were searched.
Selection criteria: Randomised controlled trials that reported lymphoedema
as the primary outcome and compared any conservative intervention to either no intervention or to another conservative intervention.
collection and analysis: Three authors independently assessed the risk of bias and extracted data. Outcome measures included
lymphoedema, infection, range of motion of the shoulder, pain, psychosocial morbidity, level of functioning in activities
of daily life (ADL), and health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Where possible, meta-analyses were performed. Risk ratio
(RRs) or hazard ratio (HRs) were reported for dichotomous outcomes or lymphoedema incidence, and mean differences (MDs) for
range of motion and patient-reported outcomes.
Main results: Ten trials involving 1205 participants were included.
The duration of patient follow-up ranged from 2 days to 2 years after the intervention. Overall, the quality of the evidence
generated by these trials was low, due to risk of bias in the included trials and inconsistency in the results.