- Dynamical structure factor of one-dimensional Bose gases: Experimental signatures of beyond-Luttinger-liquid physics
- Physical Review A
- Volume | Issue number
- 91 | 4
- Article number
- Number of pages
- Document type
- Faculty of Science (FNWI)
- Institute for Theoretical Physics Amsterdam (ITFA)
Interactions are known to have dramatic effects on bosonic gases in one dimension (1D). Not only does the ground state transform from a condensate like state to an effective Fermi sea, but new fundamental excitations, which do not have any higher-dimensional equivalents, are predicted to appear. In this work, we trace these elusive excitations via their effects on the dynamical structure factor of 1D strongly interacting Bose gases at low temperature. An array of 1D Bose gases is obtained by loading a Rb-87 condensate in a two-dimensional lattice potential. The dynamical structure factor of the system is probed by energy deposition through low-momentum Bragg excitations. The experimental signals are compared to recent theoretical predictions for the dynamical structure factor of the Lieb-Liniger model at T > 0. Our results demonstrate that the main contribution to the spectral widths stems from the dynamics of the interaction-induced excitations in the gas, which cannot be described by the Luttinger liquid theory.
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