This chapter recaps the main findings of this volume, which has taken stock of existing research on integration processes
and policies in Europe. It summarizes what research says about integration processes, in particular, the relevance of actors
in origin countries for integration. A few general conclusions are drawn. First, integration policies—or policies under the
flag of integration—have developed at many levels of government: nationally, locally, regionally, and at the supra-national
level of the European Union. This last is a relative newcomer, but an increasingly important platform for all. "Multilevelness"
is a characteristic that will remain influential into the future. Second, a multitude of stakeholders has become involved
in integration as policy designers and implementers. These include not only governmental and quasi-governmental actors but
also immigrant collectives, civil society, social partners, and nongovernmental agents. They bring to the policymaking table
quite different views on what integration is, what integration policies should promote, and who needs what assistance in the
integration process. Finally, the European Commission’s shift from a definition of integration as a two-way process to a three-way
process is found to reflect mainly an effort to bring together the policy activities of different parties (i.e., in countries
of origin and destination) in the different but related fields of integration, immigration control, and Migration & Development.
Policies in these three fields had previously developed simultaneously but separately. Thus a logic of policymaking—and not
an evidence-based scientific argument—can be said to underlie the European Commission’s redefinition of integration.