This chapter focuses on migration and integration as multilevel policy issues and explores the consequences in terms of multilevel
governance. Immigration policymaking has been characterized by continued struggle between national governments and the EU
about the amount of discretion states have in interpreting EU directives. The involvement of local and regional governments
in debates about intra-EU migration, particularly East-west migration from new member states, has further complicated the
situation. Regarding integration, even more complex relations have emerged between local, regional, national, and EU institutions.
The superdiverse cities of Europe, such as Barcelona, London, Berlin, and Rotterdam, have taken policy directions very different
from their national governments, effectively "decoupling" national and local policies. While politicization of migrant integration
continues to drive policies in many countries, the EU has developed various soft governance measures to promote policy learning
between local governments. This chapter examines the recent evolution of migration and integration policies at the EU, national,
and local levels, as well as the regional level. This enables us to understand the factors that drive policies at the different
levels and the extent that these lead to convergence or divergence between the levels. Also analysed are the relations—or
absence of relations—between levels of government. To make sense of these relations, a framework is applied that allows for
different arrangements of relations. The notion of "multilevel governance" provides one possible way of structuring relations
between various government levels.