- Adaptations of the secretome of Candida albicans in response to host-related environmental conditions
- Eukaryotic Cell
- Volume | Issue number
- 14 | 12
- Pages (from-to)
- Document type
- Faculty of Science (FNWI)
- Swammerdam Institute for Life Sciences (SILS)
The wall proteome and the secretome of the fungal pathogen Candida albicans help it to thrive in multiple niches of the human body. Mass spectrometry has allowed researchers to study the dynamics of both subproteomes. Here we discuss some major responses of the secretome to host-related environmental conditions. Three beta-1,3-glucan-modifying enzymes, Mp65, Sun41, and Tos1, are consistently found in high amounts in culture supernatants, suggesting that they are needed for construction and expansion of the cell wall beta-1,3-glucan layer, and thus correlate with growth and might serve as diagnostic biomarkers. The genes ENG1, CHT3, and SCW11, which encode an endoglucanase, the major chitinase, and a beta-1,3-glucan-modifying enzyme, respectively, are periodically expressed and peak in M/G1. The corresponding protein abundances in the medium correlate with the degree of cell separation during single-yeast-cell, pseudohyphal, and hyphal growth. We also discuss the observation that cells treated with fluconazole, or other agents causing cell surface stress, form pseudohyphal aggregates. Fluconazole-treated cells secrete abundant amounts of the transglucosylase Phr1, which is involved in the accumulation of beta-1,3-glucan in biofilms, raising the question whether this is a general response to cell surface stress. Other abundant secretome proteins also contribute to biofilm formation, emphasizing the important role of secretome proteins in this mode of growth. Finally, we discuss the relevance of these observations to therapeutic intervention. Together, these data illustrate that C. albicans actively adapts its secretome to environmental conditions, thus promoting its survival in widely divergent niches of the human body.
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