This catalogue itself can be seen to be a geometric object; it is called the moduli space of K3 surfaces. A point of this moduli space corresponds to a particular K3 surface; a small displacement within the moduli space gives a small deformation of the surface. In this thesis we study the structure of the moduli space of K3 surfaces. It turns out that so-called modular forms are relevant to this. These are functions that behave in a very special way under the action of a discrete group of transformations. These modular forms contain a surprising amount of number-theoretic information.
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