We present quantitative reconstructions of regional vegetation cover in north-western Europe, western Europe north of the
Alps, and eastern Europe for five time windows in the Holocene [around 6k, 3k, 0.5k, 0.2k, and 0.05k calendar years before
present (bp)] at a 1° × 1° spatial scale with the objective of producing vegetation descriptions suitable for climate modelling.
The REVEALS model was applied on 636 pollen records from lakes and bogs to reconstruct the past cover of 25 plant taxa grouped
into 10 plant-functional types and three land-cover types [evergreen trees, summer-green (deciduous) trees, and open land].
The model corrects for some of the biases in pollen percentages by using pollen productivity estimates and fall speeds of
pollen, and by applying simple but robust models of pollen dispersal and deposition. The emerging patterns of tree migration
and deforestation between 6k bp and modern time in the REVEALS estimates agree with our general understanding of the vegetation
history of Europe based on pollen percentages. However, the degree of anthropogenic deforestation (i.e. cover of cultivated
and grazing land) at 3k, 0.5k, and 0.2k bp is significantly higher than deduced from pollen percentages. This is also the
case at 6k in some parts of Europe, in particular Britain and Ireland. Furthermore, the relationship between summer-green
and evergreen trees, and between individual tree taxa, differs significantly when expressed as pollen percentages or as REVEALS
estimates of tree cover. For instance, when Pinus is dominant over Picea as pollen percentages, Picea is dominant over Pinus
as REVEALS estimates. These differences play a major role in the reconstruction of European landscapes and for the study of
land cover-climate interactions, biodiversity and human resources.