Results show that DCs are targeted by MV early in infection in vivo. In particular expression of CLR DC-SIGN by DCs has major effects on viral infections, as its function is subverted by MV in multiple ways to promote viral dissemination - by enhancing cellular infection and transmission to lymphocytes as well as via signaling, which suppresses RIG-I-like receptor-mediated antiviral responses.
Langerhans cells are the first cells to encounter HIV-1. LCs are infected by both X4 and R5 viruses, but only transmit R5 HIV-1 to T lymphocytes, implying that LCs play a crucial role in R5 selection, the predominantly transmitted HIV-1 strain.
These data give more insight in pathogen recognition by innate immune cells and underline the specific characteristics of the different cell types.
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