- Effectiveness measures for cross-sectional studies: a comparison of value-added models and contextualised attainment models
- School Effectiveness and School Improvement
- Volume | Issue number
- 24 | 1
- Pages (from-to)
- Document type
- Faculty of Social and Behavioural Sciences (FMG)
- Research Institute of Child Development and Education (RICDE)
Educational effectiveness research often appeals to value-added models (VAM) to gauge the impact of schooling on student learning net of the effect of student background variables. A huge amount of cross-sectional studies do not, however, meet VAM's requirement for longitudinal data. Contextualised attainment models (CAM) measure the influence of schools on student outcomes controlling for family background characteristics in cross-sectional studies. It is argued that the latter are adequate substitutes for student prior attainment. Drawing on data from a 3-point longitudinal study in the city of Berlin, Germany (n = 3,074), reading and mathematics achievement of primary students are investigated to assess effectiveness measures of schools. Estimates are compared for a 3-level growth curve analysis (VAM), a hierarchical linear model controlling for background characteristics (CAM), and one additionally controlling for prior achievement scores (prior attainment model). The article contributes to the enhancement of a feedback culture for cross-sectional study results.
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