Objective: The authors examined moderators and mediators of a school-based psychosocial intervention for children affected
by political violence, according to an ecological resilience theoretical framework. Method: The authors examined data from
a cluster randomized trial, involving children aged 8-13 in Central Sulawesi, Indonesia (treatment condition n = 182, waitlist
control condition n = 221). Mediators (hope, coping, peer/emotional/play social support) and moderators (gender, age, family
connectedness, household size, other forms of social support, exposure to political violence, and displacement) of treatment
outcome on posttraumatic stress symptoms and function impairment were examined in parallel process latent growth curve models.
Results: Compared with the waitlist group, those receiving treatment showed maintained hope, increased positive coping, maintained
peer social support, and increased play social support. Of these putative mediators, only play social support was found to
mediate treatment effects, such that increases in play social support were associated with smaller reductions in posttraumatic
stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. Furthermore, the authors identified a number of moderators: Girls showed larger treatment
benefits on PTSD symptoms; girls, children in smaller households, and children receiving social support from adults outside
the household showed larger treatment benefits on function impairment. Conclusions: Findings provide limited evidence for
an ecological resilience theoretical framework. On the basis of these findings, the authors recommend a stronger separation
between universal prevention (e.g., resilience promotion through play) and selective/indicated prevention (e.g., interventions
aimed at decreasing posttraumatic stress symptoms). Play-based interventions should be careful to exclude children with psychological
distress. In addition, treatment effects may be augmented by selecting girls and socially vulnerable children.