M.M.E. van der Kooi
R.H. van Doorn
S. van der Linden
P. de Voogt
- Sample preparation for combined chemical analysis and bioassay application in water quality assessment
- Environmental toxicology and pharmacology
- Volume | Issue number
- 36 | 3
- Pages (from-to)
- Document type
- Faculty of Science (FNWI)
- Institute for Biodiversity and Ecosystem Dynamics (IBED)
The combination of in vitro bioassays and chemical screening can provide a powerful toolbox to determine biologically relevant compounds in water extracts. In this study, a sample preparation method is evaluated for the suitability for both chemical analysis and in vitro bioassays. A set of 39 chemicals were spiked to surface water, which were extracted using Oasis MCX cartridges. The extracts were chemically analyzed by liquid chromatography linear ion trap Orbitrap analysis and recoveries appeared to be on average 61% Compounds with log Kow values in the range between 0 and 4 are recovered well using this method.
In a next step, the same extracts were tested for genotoxic activity using the Comet assay and Ames fluctuation test and for specific endocrine receptor activation using a panel of CALUX assays, for estrogenic (ER), androgenic (AR), glucocorticoid (GR), progestagenic (PR), and thyroidogenic (TR) agonistic activities. The results of the genotoxicity assays indicated that spiked genotoxic compounds were preserved during sample preparation. The measured responses of the GR CALUX and ER CALUX assays were similar to the predicted responses. The measured responses in the AR CALUX and PR CALUX assays were much lower than expected from the analytical concentration, probably due to antagonistic effects of some spiked compounds. Overall, the presented sample preparation method seems to be suitable for both chemical analysis and specific in vitro bioassay applications.
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