P. de Voogt
- Daphnid life cycle response to new generation of flame retardants
- Environmental Science and Technology
- Volume | Issue number
- 47 | 23
- Pages (from-to)
- Document type
- Faculty of Science (FNWI)
- Institute for Biodiversity and Ecosystem Dynamics (IBED)
Relatively hazardous brominated flame retardants (BFRs) are currently substituted with halogen-free flame retardants (HFFRs). Consequently, information on their persistence, bioaccumulation and toxicity (PBT) is urgently needed. Therefore, we investigated the chronic toxicity to the water flea Daphnia magna of two HFFRs, aluminum diethylphosphinate (ALPI) and 9,10-dihyro-9-oxa-10-phosphaphenanthrene-oxide (DOPO). The toxicity of ALPI increased from a 48 h LC50 of 18 mg L-1 to a 21 day LC50 value of 3.2 mg L-1, resulting in an acute-to-chronic ratio of 5.6. This may imply a change in classification from low to moderate toxicity. ALPI also affected sublethal life cycle parameters, with an EC50 of 2.8 mg L-1 for cumulative reproductive output and of 3.4 mg L-1 for population growth rate, revealing a nonspecific mode of action. DOPO showed only sublethal effects with an EC50 value of 48 mg L-1 for cumulative reproductive output and an EC50 value of 73 mg L-1 for population growth rate. The toxicity of DOPO to D. magna was classified as low and likely occurred above environmentally relevant concentrations, but we identified specific effects on reproduction. Given the low chronic toxicity of DOPO and the moderate toxicity of ALPI, based on this study only, DOPO seems to be more suitable than ALPI for BFR replacement in polymers.
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