P. de Voogt
- Dietary exposure to selected Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in four European regions
- Food additives & contaminants. A
- Volume | Issue number
- 30 | 12
- Pages (from-to)
- Document type
- Faculty of Science (FNWI)
- Institute for Biodiversity and Ecosystem Dynamics (IBED)
The dietary exposure to selected PFAAs was estimated in four selected European states (Belgium, the Czech Republic, Italy and Norway) representing Western, Southern, Eastern and Northern Europe. The harmonised sampling programme designed in the European Union project PERFOOD was targeted at identifying seven selected PFAAs, including perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), in food items that are most important both in terms of consumption and based on known high contamination patterns. The estimated average dietary exposure for adults (18-64 years) and children (3-9 years) is generally below or close to 1 ng kg-1 BW day-1 for all seven PFAAs. Considering the high consumption of food groups that contribute most to the exposure does not result in estimates exceeding 4 ng kg-1 BW day-1. Thus, based on the TDIs proposed by EFSA for PFOS (150 ng kg-1 BW day-1) and PFOA (1500 ng kg-1 BW day-1), no concern can be identified. There are distinct dietary exposure patterns from region to region as a result of different food consumption and contamination patterns. Foods of plant origin (e.g. fruit and vegetables) are most important for the dietary exposure to PFHxA, PFOA and PFHxS, while the consumption of foods of animal origin (particularly fish and seafood) mostly contributes to the dietary exposure to PFDA and PFUnDA. For the dietary exposure to PFNA and PFOS, food of animal and plant origin contributes with equal importance. In conclusion, region-to-region differences as well as the relative importance of food of different origin for each PFAA should be paid more attention in further research.
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