P. de Voogt
- Toxicity of new generation flame retardants to Daphnia magna
- Science of the Total Environment
- Pages (from-to)
- Document type
- Faculty of Science (FNWI)
- Institute for Biodiversity and Ecosystem Dynamics (IBED)
There is a tendency to substitute frequently used, but relatively hazardous brominated flame retardants (BFRs) with halogen-free flame retardants (HFFRs). Consequently, information on the persistence, bioaccumulation and toxicity (PBT) of these HFFRs is urgently needed, but large data gaps and inconsistencies exist. Therefore, in the present study the toxicity of a wide range of HFFRs to the water flea Daphnia magna was investigated. Our results revealed that four HFFRs were showing no effect at their Sw (saturated water concentration) and three had a low toxicity (EC50 > 10 mg L− 1), suggesting that these compounds are not hazardous. Antimony trioxide had a moderate toxicity (EC50 = 3.01 mg L− 1, 95% CL: 2.76-3.25) and triphenyl phosphate and the brominated reference compound tetra bromobisphenol A were highly toxic to D. magna (EC50 = 0.55 mg L− 1, 95% CL: 0.53-0.55 and EC50 = 0.60 mg L− 1, 95% CL: 0.24-0.97 respectively). Aluminum trihydroxide and bisphenol A bis(diphenyl phosphate) caused limited mortality at Sw (26 and 25% respectively) and have a low solubility (< 10 mg L− 1). Hence, increased toxicity of these compounds may be observed when for instance decreasing pH could increase solubility. By testing all compounds under identical conditions we provided missing insights in the environmental hazards of new generation flame retardants and propose as best candidates for BFR replacements: APP, ALPI, DOPO, MHO, MPP, ZHS and ZS.
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