HIV-related stigma in African and Afro-Caribbean diaspora communities in the Netherlands was investigated. Interviews with
HIV-positive and HIV-negative community members demonstrated that HIV-related stigma manifests as social distance, physical
distance, words and silence. The psychological consequences of HIV-related stigma among those diagnosed with HIV reported
were emotional pain, sadness, loneliness, anger, frustration and internalised stigma. The social consequences included decreased
social network size, limited social support and social isolation, and resulted from not only enacted stigma but also self-imposed
social withdrawal. Also, poor treatment adherence was a health-related consequence. People living with HIV employed both problem-focused
and emotion-focused coping strategies to mitigate the negative consequences of stigma. Problem-focused coping strategies included
selective disclosure, disengagement, affiliating with similar others, seeking social support and, to a lesser extent, activism.
Emotion-focused strategies included distraction, positive reappraisal, religious coping, external attributions, disidentification
and acceptance. HIV-related stigma clearly permeates African and Afro-Caribbean communities in the Netherlands, and should
be targeted for intervention.