- Highly selective asymmetric Rh-catalyzed hydroformylation of heterocyclic olefins
- Journal of the American Chemical Society
- Volume | Issue number
- 134 | 15
- Pages (from-to)
- Document type
- Faculty of Science (FNWI)
- Van 't Hoff Institute for Molecular Sciences (HIMS)
A small family of new chiral hybrid, diphosphorus ligands, consisting of phosphine-phosphoramidites L1 and L2 and phosphine-phosphonites L3a-c, was synthesized for the application in Rh-catalyzed asymmetric hydroformylation of heterocyclic olefins. High-pressure (HP)-NMR and HP-IR spectroscopy under 5-10 bar of syngas has been employed to characterize the corresponding catalyst resting state with each ligand. Indole-based ligands L1 and L2 led to selective ea coordination, while the xanthene derived system L3c gave predominant ee coordination. Application of the small bite-angle ligands L1 and L2 in the highly selective asymmetric hydroformylation (AHF) of the challenging substrate 2,3-dihydrofuran (1) yielded the 2-carbaldehyde (3) as the major regioisomer in up to 68% yield (with ligand L2) along with good ee’s of up to 62%. This is the first example in which the asymmetric hydroformylation of 1 is both regio- and enantioselective for isomer 3. Interestingly, use of ligand L3c in the same reaction completely changed the regioselectivity to 3-carbaldehyde (4) with a remarkably high enantioselectivity of 91%. Ligand L3c also performs very well in the Rh-catalyzed asymmetric hydroformylation of other heterocyclic olefins. Highly enantioselective conversion of the notoriously difficult substrate 2,5-dihydrofuran (2) is achieved using the same catalyst, with up to 91% ee, concomitant with complete regioselectivity to the 3-carbaldehyde product (4) under mild reaction conditions. Interestingly, the Rh-catalyst derived from L3c is thus able to produce both enantiomers of 3-carbaldehyde 4, simply by changing the substrate from 1 to 2. Furthermore, 85% ee was obtained in the hydroformylation of N-acetyl-3-pyrroline (5) with exceptionally high regioselectivities for 3-carbaldehyde 8Ac (>99%). Similarly, an ee of 86% for derivative 8Boc was accomplished using the same catalyst system in the AHF of N-(tert-butoxycarbonyl)-3-pyrroline (6). These results represent the highest ee’s reported to date in the AHF of dihydrofurans (1, 2) and 3-pyrrolines (5, 6).
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