- The future of CO2 cooling in particle physics detectors
- 23th International Conference of Refrigeration : Refrigeration for Sustainable Development
- Book/source title
- Proceedings of the 23rd IIR International Congress of Refrigeration: Prague, Czech Republic, August 21-26, 2011: overarching theme: Refrigeration for Sustainable Development [cd-rom]
- Paris: International Institute of Refrigeration
- Document type
- Conference contribution
- Faculty of Science (FNWI)
- Institute for High Energy Physics (IHEF)
Evaporative CO2 cooling has attracted a lot of interest as cooling fluid for particle physics detectors. Two detectors (the AMS on the International Space Station and the LHCb at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN) have been equipped with CO2 cooling; many more particle detectors are considering it for the future. The cooling fluid for detectors must be radiation hard, therefore normal refrigerants cannot be used. Up to now most detectors were cooled with fluorocarbons in both single and two-phase. Evaporative CO2 has proven to be superior with respect to the fluorocarbon refrigerants used now. In detectors it is highly important to have very low mass structures, as mass deviates the particle tracks which need to be measured accurately. CO2 cooling is superior in small cooling channels. Therefore, cooling channels with CO2 can be made much smaller than fluorocarbon channels, gaining at least a factor of 5 in applied cooling systems mass. This paper describes the ongoing developments of CO2 cooling in particle physics detectors. It describes the challenges we are facing by applying CO2 cooling for the various candidate detectors and the lessons learned from the two operational systems in AMS and LHCb. This paper also describes the activities for the development of 2 small scale CO2 cooling systems to support the particle physics laboratories in their research and development of future particle detectors. Two user friendly CO2 systems with a nominal capacity of 100 W and 1 kW are under development for this support. Both systems are able to control the attached experiments between -40 and +25°C.
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