- Are "functionally related polymorphisms" of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system gene polymorphisms associated with hypertension?
- BMC Cardiovascular Disorders
- Volume | Issue number
- 10 | 1
- Pages (from-to)
- Document type
- Faculty of Medicine (AMC-UvA)
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Genotype-phenotype association studies are typically based upon polymorphisms or haplotypes comprised of multiple polymorphisms within a single gene. It has been proposed that combinations of polymorphisms in distinct genes, which functionally impact the same phenotype, may have stronger phenotype associations than those within a single gene. We have tested this hypothesis using genes encoding components of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and the high blood pressure phenotype. METHODS: Our analysis is based on 1379 participants of the cross-sectional SUNSET study randomly selected from the population register of Amsterdam. Each subject was genotyped for the angiotensinogen M235T, the angiotensin-converting enzyme insertion/deletion and the angiotensin II type 1 receptor A1166C polymorphism. The phenotype high blood pressure was defined either as a categorical variable comparing hypertension versus normotension as in most previous studies or as a continuous variable using systolic, diastolic and mean blood pressure in a multiple regression analysis with gender, ethnicity, age, body-mass-index and antihypertensive medication as covariates. RESULTS: Genotype-phenotype relationships were explored for each polymorphism in isolation and for double and triple polymorphism combinations. At the single polymorphism level, only the A allele of the angiotensin II type 1 receptor was associated with a high blood pressure phenotype. Using combinations of polymorphisms of two or all three genes did not yield stronger/more consistent associations. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that combinations of physiologically related polymorphisms of multiple genes, at least with regard to the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and the hypertensive phenotype, do not necessarily offer additional benefit in analyzing genotype/phenotype associations
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