by the Dutch Ministry of Education, Culture and Science in 1999 caused students to
participate more in high cultural events. A unique feature of the intervention was
that students were free to choose the type of cultural event they participated in. So the
intervention relied on the intrinsic motivation of students to participate in high cultural
events, while there was no reason to assume that this motivation was present given the
We find that Cultural and Artistic Education did increase the student participation
in high culture, but did not increase student participation in popular culture. The effect
of the intervention is, however, small. While student characteristics did not affect the
observed differences in high cultural participation over time, the fraction of immigrant
students in the class did: the lower this fraction, the more students participate in high
cultural events. Finally, the effect seems to represent (at least partly) the intrinsic
motivation of students for high culture.
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