E.A. van Vliet
- COX-2 inhibition controls P-glycoprotein expression and promotes brain delivery of phenytoin in chronic epileptic rats
- Volume | Issue number
- 58 | 2
- Pages (from-to)
- Document type
- Faculty of Science (FNWI)
- Swammerdam Institute for Life Sciences (SILS)
Epileptic seizures drive expression of the blood-brain barrier efflux transporter P-glycoprotein via a glutamate/cyclooxygenase-2 mediated signalling pathway. Targeting this pathway may represent an innovative approach to control P-glycoprotein expression in the epileptic brain and to enhance brain delivery of antiepileptic drugs.
Therefore, we tested the effect of specific cyclooxygenase-2 inhibition on P-glycoprotein expression in two different status epilepticus models. Moreover, the impact of a cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor on expression of the efflux transporter and on brain delivery of an antiepileptic drug was evaluated in rats with recurrent spontaneous seizures.
The highly selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors SC-58236 and NS-398 both counteracted the status epilepticus-associated increase in P-glycoprotein expression in the parahippocampal cortex and the ventral hippocampus. In line with our working hypothesis, a sub-chronic 2-week treatment with SC-58236 in the chronic epileptic state kept P-glycoprotein expression at control levels. As described previously, enhanced P-glycoprotein expression in chronic epileptic rats was associated with a significant reduction in the brain penetration of the antiepileptic drug phenytoin. Importantly, the brain delivery of phenytoin was significantly enhanced by sub-chronic cyclooxygenase-2 inhibition in rats with recurrent seizures.
In conclusion, the data substantiate targeting of cyclooxygenase-2 in the chronic epileptic brain as a promising strategy to control the expression levels of P-glycoprotein despite recurrent seizure activity. Cyclooxygenase-2 inhibition may therefore help to increase concentrations of antiepileptic drugs at the target sites in the epileptic brain. It needs to be further evaluated whether the approach also enhances efficacy.
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