This paper describes the development and validation of the multi-dimensional Ethical Leadership at Work (ELW) questionnaire.
Based on theory, interviews and a student sample, we developed seven ethical leader behaviors (fairness, integrity, ethical
guidance, people orientation, power sharing, role clarification, and concern for sustainability). We then tested the factor
structure in two employee samples (first common-source, EFA; next multi-source, CFA). To establish construct validity we related
ethical leader behaviors to other leadership styles and employee attitudes in Study 1. The expected pattern of relationships
emerged, e.g., positive relationships with satisfaction and commitment, and negative ones with cynicism. The results suggest
that the ELW scales have sound psychometric properties and good construct validity. In Study 2, using a multi-source sample,
the ELW behaviors explained variance in trust, OCB, and leader and follower effectiveness beyond a uni-dimensional measure
of ethical leadership. Ethical leadership was also related to OCB (supervisor-rated). Employees who rate their leader higher
on power sharing and fairness show more OCB. Taken together, the results suggest that the ELW is a useful new multidimensional
measurement tool that can help further our understanding of the antecedents and consequences of ethical leadership.