To understand when and why mood states influence creativity, the authors developed and tested a dual pathway to creativity
model; creative fluency (number of ideas or insights) and originality (novelty) are functions of cognitive flexibility, persistence,
or some combination thereof. Invoking work on arousal, psychophysiological processes, and working memory capacity, the authors
argue that activating moods (e.g., angry, fearful, happy, elated) lead to more creative fluency and originality than do deactivating
moods (e.g., sad, depressed, relaxed, serene). Furthermore, activating moods influence creative fluency and originality because
of enhanced cognitive flexibility when tone is positive and because of enhanced persistence when tone is negative. Four studies
with different mood manipulations and operationalizations of creativity (e.g., brainstorming, category inclusion tasks, gestalt
completion tests) support the model.