- Cellular Uptake Kinetics of Neutral and Charged Chemicals in in Vitro Assays Measured by Fluorescence Microscopy
- Chemical research in toxicology
- Volume | Issue number
- 31 | 8
- Pages (from-to)
- Document type
- Faculty of Science (FNWI)
- Institute for Biodiversity and Ecosystem Dynamics (IBED)
Cellular uptake kinetics are key for understanding time-dependent chemical exposure in in vitro cell assays. Slow cellular uptake kinetics in relation to the total exposure time can considerably reduce the biologically effective dose. In this study, fluorescence microscopy combined with automated image analysis was applied for time-resolved quantification of cellular uptake of 10 neutral, anionic, cationic, and zwitterionic fluorophores in two reporter gene assays. The chemical fluorescence in the medium remained relatively constant during the 24-h assay duration, emphasizing that the proteins and lipids in the fetal bovine serum (FBS) supplemented to the assay medium represent a large reservoir of reversibly bound chemicals with the potential to compensate for chemical depletion by cell uptake, growth, and sorption to well materials. Hence FBS plays a role in stabilizing the cellular dose in a similar way as polymer-based passive dosing, here we term this process as serum-mediated passive dosing (SMPD). Neutral chemicals accumulated in the cells up to 12 times faster than charged chemicals. Increasing medium FBS concentrations accelerated uptake due to FBS-facilitated transport but led to lower cellular concentrations as a result of increased sorption to medium proteins and lipids. In vitro cell exposure results from the interaction of several extra- and intracellular processes, leading to variable and time-dependent exposure between different chemicals and assay setups. The medium FBS plays a crucial role for the thermodynamic equilibria as well as for the cellular uptake kinetics, hence influencing exposure. However, quantification of cellular exposure by an area under the curve (AUC) analysis illustrated that, for the evaluated bioassay setup, current in vitro exposure models that assume instantaneous equilibrium between medium and cells still reflect a realistic exposure because the AUC was typically reduced less than 20% compared to the cellular dose that would result from instantaneous equilibrium.
- go to publisher's site
- Other links
- Link to publication in Scopus
- With supporting information
If you believe that digital publication of certain material infringes any of your rights or (privacy) interests, please let the Library know, stating your reasons. In case of a legitimate complaint, the Library will make the material inaccessible and/or remove it from the website. Please Ask the Library, or send a letter to: Library of the University of Amsterdam, Secretariat, Singel 425, 1012 WP Amsterdam, The Netherlands. You will be contacted as soon as possible.