- Light, the circadian timing system, and type 2 diabetes
- Award date
- 18 April 2017
- Number of pages
- Document type
- PhD thesis
- Faculty of Medicine (AMC-UvA)
Life evolved in conditions of a 24-hour rhythm of light and darkness, as dictated by the rotation of the earth. To prepare for the resulting behavioral rhythms of feeding/fasting and activity/sleep, mammals possess a circadian timing system, consisting of a central brain clock and peripheral clocks in tissues such as liver, pancreas and adipose tissue. The central clock in the brain is synchronized by environmental light. Nowadays, artificial light and fridges enable people to turn on the light, consume food, and perform activities at any time they desire. For this thesis, we hypothesized that the resulting desynchrony between the clocks in the circadian timing system and the rhythms of feeding/fasting, activity/sleep, and light/darkness, contributes to the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes.
In a rat study, dim light at night caused major disturbances of sleep-wake behavior, feeding rhythms and metabolic rhythms. In healthy humans and patients with type 2 diabetes, bright ambient light directly influenced plasma glucose and lipid levels. In a subsequent study, patients with type 2 diabetes showed reduced daily rhythms of glucose metabolism and adipose tissue gene expression compared to healthy subjects. In a randomized clinical trial, a breakfast intervention (based on the observed reduced morning glucose tolerance) in patients with type 2 diabetes, reduced morning postprandial glucose levels without effect on long-term glycemic control. Together, our data provide support for the desynchrony-hypothesis.
- Chapter 1:
This chapter was based on the following publication: Stenvers DJ, Jonkers CF, Fliers E, Bisschop PH, Kalsbeek A. Nutrition and the circadian timing system. Progress in Brain Research 2012;199:359-76. doi: 10.1016/B978-0-444-59427-3.00020-4.
This chapter has been published: Scientific Reports 2016 Oct 20;6:35662. doi: 10.1038/srep35662
This chapter has been published: Journal of Biological Rhythms. doi: 10.1177/0748730417693480
This is an author-created, uncopyedited electronic version of an article accepted for publication in Diabetes. The American Diabetes Association (ADA), publisher of Diabetes, is not responsible for any errors or omissions in this version of the manuscript or any version derived from it by third parties. The definitive publisher-authenticated version are available in Diabetes in print (Diabetes. 2013 Jul;62(7):2173-4) and online at http://diabetes.diabetesjournals.org. (doi: 10.2337/db13-0466)"
This chapter has been published: British Journal of Nutrition 2014 Aug 28;112(4):504-12. doi: 10.1017/S0007114514001123.
Copyright holder: Cambridge University Press.
Please note that the section 'Dankwoord' (pp. 214-217) is not included in the thesis downloads.
Thesis (Embargo until 18 April 2019)
3. Acute effects of morning light on plasma glucose and triglycerides in healthy men and men with type 2 diabetes (Embargo until 18 October 2017)
4. The diurnal rhythm of adipose tissue gene expression is reduced in obese patients with type 2 diabetes (Embargo until 18 April 2019)
5. Postprandial plasma bile acid excursions in obese patients with type 2 diabetes are characterized by early peaks, despite normal diurnal rhythms (Embargo until 18 April 2019)
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