- Multiple evolutionary trajectories have led to the emergence of races in Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici
- Applied and Environmental Microbiology
- Volume | Issue number
- 83 | 4
- Article number
- Number of pages
- Document type
- Faculty of Science (FNWI)
- Swammerdam Institute for Life Sciences (SILS)
Race 1 isolates of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici (Fol) are characterized by the presence of AVR1 in their genomes. The product of this gene, Avr1, triggers resistance in tomato cultivars carrying resistance gene I In Fol race 2 and race 3 isolates, AVR1 is absent and hence they are virulent on tomato cultivars carrying I. In this study, we analyze an approximately 100 kb genomic fragment containing the AVR1 locus of race 1 isolate Fol004, and compare it to the sequenced genome of Fol race 2 isolate 4287 (Fol4287). A genomic fragment of 31 kb containing AVR1 was found to be missing in Fol4287. Further analysis suggests that race 2 evolved from race 1 by deletion of this 31 kb fragment due to a recombination event between two transposable elements bordering the fragment. A worldwide collection of 71 Fol isolates representing races 1, 2 and 3, all known vegetative compatibility groups (VCGs) and five continents was subjected to PCR analysis of the AVR1 locus, including the two bordering transposable elements. Based on phylogenetic analysis using EF1-α, five evolutionary lineages for Fol were identified that correlate well with VCGs. More importantly, we show that Fol races evolved in a stepwise manner within each VCG by the loss of function of avirulence genes in a number of alternative ways.
IMPORTANCE: Plant-pathogenic microorganisms frequently mutate to overcome disease resistance genes that have been introduced in crops. For the fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici, the causal agent of Fusarium wilt in tomato, we have identified the nature of the mutations that have led to the overcoming of the I and I-2 resistance genes in all five known clonal lineages, which include a newly discovered lineage. Five different deletion events, at least several of which are caused by recombination between transposable elements, have led to loss of AVR1 and overcoming of I. Two new events affecting AVR2 have been identified that led to overcoming of I-2 have been identified. We propose a reconstruction of the evolution of races in Fol, in which the same mutations in AVR2 and AVR3 have occurred in different lineages, and the Fol pathogenicity chromosome has been transferred to new lineages several times.
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- Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved. With supplemental material
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