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| Authors||R. Peters, M. van Duin, D. Tonoli, G. Kwakkenbos, Y. Mengerink, R.A.T.M. van Benthem, C.G. de Koster, P.J. Schoenmakers, S. van der Wal|
|Title||Low-molecular-weight model study of peroxide cross-linking of ethylene-propylene-diene rubber using gas chromatography and mass spectrometry: II. Addition and combination reactions|
|Journal||Journal of Chromatography A|
|Faculty||Faculty of Science|
|Institute/dept.||FNWI: Van 't Hoff Institute for Molecular Sciences (HIMS)|
FNWI: Swammerdam Institute for Life Sciences (SILS)
|Abstract||The dicumyl-peroxide-initiated addition and combination reactions of mixtures of alkanes (n-octane, n-decane) and alkenes [5,6-dihydrodicyclopentadiene (DCPDH), 5-ethylidene-2-norbornane (ENBH) and 5-vinylidene-2-norbornane (VNBH)] were studied to mimic the peroxide cross-linking reactions of terpolymerised ethylene, propylene and a diene monomer (EPDM). The reaction products of the mixtures were separated by both gas chromatography (GC) and comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC x GC). The separated compounds were identified from their mass spectra and their GC and GC x GC elution pattern. Quantification of the various alkyl/alkyl, alkyl/allyl and allyl/allyl combination products shows that allylic-radicals comprise approximately 60% of the substrate radicals formed. The total concentration of the products formed by combination is found to be independent of the concentration and the type of alkene. The total concentration of the products formed by addition to the alkene increases with increasing concentration of alkene. In addition, the total concentration of the formed addition products depends strongly on the type of the alkene used, viz. VNBH > ENBH approximate to DCPDH, which is a consequence of differences in steric hindrance of the unsaturation. The peroxide curing efficiency, defined as the number of moles of cross-linked products formed per mol of peroxide, is 173% using 9% (w/w) 5-vinylidene-2norbornane (VNBH). This indicates that the addition reaction is recurrent. All these findings are consistent with experimental studies on peroxide curing of EPDM rubber. In addition, the present results provide more-detailed structural information, increasing the understanding of the mechanism of peroxide curing of EPDM. The described approach to use low-molecular-weight model compounds followed by GC-mass spectrometry (MS) and GC x GC-MS analysis is proven to be a very powerful tool to study the cross-linking of EPDM.|
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