The role of ecosystems has been recently acknowledged within the current global framework for environmental management, disaster risk reduction, climate change adaptation and also sustainable development. The approach of ecosystem-based disaster risk reduction (Eco-DRR) is promoted as a compatible with community inclusiveness and participation, as well as cost-efficient, socially friendly and sustainable.
Notwithstanding its acknowledged strengths, Eco-DRR approaches face many challenges, including skepticism of its effectiveness towards different types and magnitudes of hazards and the complexity to govern such effort. In Indonesia, DRR approaches are strongly influenced by the spirit of community participation, especially after the 2004 tsunami in Aceh and the 2009 earthquake in Padang. We argue that the learning process is important to integrate structural and non-structural measures by incorporating community involvement in Indonesia, and that Eco-DRR should be promoted, particularly to identify possible opportunities to preserve ecosystems and reduce disaster risk.
The aims of this chapter are to explore the general concept of Eco-DRR, to review examples of Eco-DRR projects and to unfold the challenges and opportunities for Eco-DRR projects in Indonesia. Data is gathered through semi-structured literature reviews and content analysis of existing research related to Eco-DRR projects in Indonesia. Demak, a coastal area in Central Java Province and the Kuwaru coastal area in Yogyakarta Special Province are selected as case studies. The outcome of this chapter is a reflection on challenges and opportunities for further advancement of Eco-DRR to achieve disaster resilient and sustainable communities in Indonesia.