faculteit: "FNWI" en publicatiejaar: "2010"
| Auteur||T. van der Maaden|
|Titel||Effects of 2nd and 3rd generation antidepressants in healthy subjects|
|Begeleiders||H.G. Ruhé, R. van Westrhenen|
|Faculteit||Faculteit der Natuurwetenschappen, Wiskunde en Informatica|
|Opleiding||FNWI MSc Brain and Cognitive Sciences|
Serotonergic and noradrenergic pathways are the main targets of antidepressants, but heir differential effects on neurocognition and emotional processing need to be further characterized. By investigating the effects of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) on healthy subjects' brain and behavior, confounding of abnormal, disease-related brain processes seen in depression can be excluded. This could lead to a better understanding of the working mechanism of SSRIs, which would offer new perspectives in the investigation of the changes induced by SSRIs in depression and the possible development of new treatments for this disorder.
To review the effects of 2nd and 3rd generation antidepressants, but mainly SSRIs, in healthy individuals, including their effects on brain activity during neurocognitive tests.
Systematic search of MEDLINE, EMBASE and PsychInfo (all indexed years). Included studies had to be placebo controlled, and describe effects of SSRI, SNRI, NRI or NaSSA treatment in healthy individuals.
Seventy-five studies met the selection criteria of which 59 described effects during cold neurocognitive tasks, and 16 changes in emotional processing; 13 studies also investigated brain activities. Acute SSRI treatment slightly stimulates performances of 'cold' neurocognitive tasks, and brain activation in relevant brain areas. SSRIs induce a positive bias in emotional processing observed after acute and (sub-)chronic administration, and increased threat processing after acute treatment only. These findings were corroborated by changes found in brain activity, showing increased amygdala activation in reaction to positive emotions, and deactivations during the processing of negative emotions during acute and chronic treatment with SSRIs. Moreover, during anticipation of negative stimuli activations were found in dorsal prefrontal and subcortical structures after acute SSRI treatment.
The available data is of high relevance for the understanding of the working mechanism of 2nd and 3rd generation antidepressants. Results point to the hypothesis that SSRIs especially induce a positive bias. It is hypothesized that this provides a platform for subsequent changes in mood and cognitive functioning. However, this needs to be investigated further in depressed patients.
|Soort document|| scriptie master|
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