faculteit: "FNWI" en publicatiejaar: "2004"
| Auteur||H. Dekkers|
|Titel||Business case: the role of the IT Architect -|
|Begeleiders||Henk Koning, Paul Klint|
|Faculteit||Faculteit der Natuurwetenschappen, Wiskunde en Informatica|
|Instituut/afd.||FNWI: Instituut voor Informatica|
|Opleiding||FNWI MSc Software Engineering|
|Samenvatting||Studies show that many ICT projects fail to meet schedule and budget. A sizeable percentage of ICT projects runaway and don’t complete at all. It is unclear to what extent initial goals are accomplished and if benefits exceed investments and operational costs. In my career I participated in a number of IT projects that can be considered as failures. Human aspects, rather than technical issues, were the main reasons for failure.|
The master project is a literature survey. The main hypothesis is that a software architect can contribute to the success of a project by developing a vision and determining the feasibility before the start of a project, notably the business case. The literature has confirmed this hypothesis and enriched the notions of vision, feasibility and the role of the IT architect.
The hypothesis was derived after thorough analysis of three cases. This analysis was required to scope the research question to a root cause for project failure. This was found to be lack of vision and insufficient understanding of the risks involved. To sharply define the research questions, the assumptions about the role of the IT architect were captured in a list of responsibilities and in two viewpoints. The business case was identified as the object containing the vision and feasibility study. This led to the following research questions:
1. Does literature confirm that a business case for ICT projects should include a vision and feasibility study?
2. Does literature confirm the distinguished responsibilities of an IT architect in making a business case?
3. Does literature confirm the proposed viewpoints with respect to vision and feasibility?
The literature survey confirmed the importance of a business case for IT projects. The business case will prevent doomed projects from being carried forward. It will provide a framework for the successful implementation of the project by providing clear goals. It will also help mitigate risks by clarifying required adaptations to organization, project and system.
Literature also confirms the importance of vision. Vision portrays the value of the new system, captures the most important constraints and provides a solution respecting these constraints. One of the main contributions of vision is that it brings people together, provides direction for individuals, provides clear motivation and coordinates different activities. That’s why a vision should be clear, and compelling.
There is much agreement in literature that the feasibility of a project needs to be considered when taking a go / no go decision. However there are many different views on how to determine feasibility. An intensive search did not come up with a suitable feasibility framework. Most frameworks were either too fine grained or too coarse.
Analyzing the different frameworks, basically two questions came forward that need to be answered:
1. Is the organization capable of executing the project as proposed
2. Is the organization capable of adopting the resulting system
In both questions it is important to look at the whole, rather than considering aspects in isolation. A project simple for one organization might proof impossible for other organizations. This shows that organizational abilities have to be matched with project characteristics. These organizational abilities are defined by maturity of processes, competence of resources and by the culture of the company. Defining a new framework was not within the scope of this thesis, however the different frameworks and risk concepts were analyzed and these two questions were refined.
Finally literature confirms the role of the IT architect as the responsible person for developing the IT vision and having an important role in establishing the feasibility of the system. What’s more, literature sees an important role for the IT architect in bridging the gap between business and technology by communication: sharing vision, facilitating decision making, resolving conflicts, finding consensus and gaining commitment.
|Soort document|| scriptie master|
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