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faculty: "FEB" and publication year: "2010"
| Authors||S.J.M. Adams, W. van Eerde|
|Title||Time use in Spain: is polychronicity a cultural phenomenon?|
|Journal||Journal of Managerial Psychology|
|Faculty||Faculty of Economics and Business|
|Institute/dept.||FEB: Amsterdam Business School Research Institute (ABS-RI)|
|Abstract||Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to measure polychronicity in Spain, traditionally typified as|
having a polychronic culture, characterized by a multifocused working environment.
Design/methodology/approach – A sample of 134 executives from 19 organizations in Madrid
completed a questionnaire on polychronicity (working on more than one task at a time), time
tangibility (precision in time use and performance), context (direct or indirect communication) and
attention to people (whether people are dealt with spontaneously or in a more scheduled manner).
Findings – Contrary to what was expected in light of the traditional image of Spain, results indicate a
tendency towards monochronicity. Gender and age did not show a relation with polychronicity. Time
tangibility and context were also unrelated to polychronicity. A previously unmeasured variable,
implied in Hall’s original work, the spontaneous attention to people in establishing and maintaining
good work relations, was positively related to polychronicity. Having worked for a multinational was
also positively related to polychronicity.
Research limitations/implications – The study was undertaken in Madrid only and focused on
differences within a Spanish sample and no cross-cultural comparison was made.
Originality/value – As far as the authors are aware, this is the first study of polychronicity in Spain.
Social interaction, coined previously as an explanation for polychronic behavior, was added in this
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