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faculteit: "FNWI" en publicatiejaar: "2010"
| Auteurs||P.R. Frade, M.C. Reyes-Nivia, J. Faria, J.A. Kaandorp, P.C. Luttikhuizen, R.P.M. Bak|
|Titel||Semi-permeable species boundaries in the coral genus Madracis: Introgression in a brooding coral system|
|Tijdschrift||Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution|
|Faculteit||Faculteit der Natuurwetenschappen, Wiskunde en Informatica|
|Instituut/afd.||FNWI: Informatics Institute (II)|
|Samenvatting||Introgressive hybridization is described in several phylogenetic studies of mass-spawning corals. However, the prevalence of this process among brooding coral species is unclear. We used a mitochondrial (mtDNA: nad5) and two nuclear (nDNA: ATPSα and SRP54) intron markers to explore species barriers in the coral genus Madracis and address the role of hybridization in brooding systems. Specimens of six Caribbean Madracis morphospecies were collected from 5 to 60 m depth at Buoy One, Curaçao, supplemented by samples from Aruba, Trinidad & Tobago and Bermuda. Polymerase chain reaction and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis were coupled to detect distinct alleles within single colonies. The recurrent nDNA phylogenetic non-monophyly among taxa is only challenged by Madracis senaria, the single monophyletic species within the genus. nDNA AMOVAs indicated overall statistical divergence (0.1% significance level) among species but pairwise comparisons of genetic differentiation revealed some gene exchange between Madracis taxa. mtDNA sequences clustered in two main groups representing typical shallow and deep water Madracis species. Madracis pharensis shallow and deep colonies (with threshold at about 23–24 m) clustered in different mtDNA branches, together with their depth-sympatric congenerics. This divergence was repeated for the nDNA (ATPSα) suggestive of distinct M. pharensis depth populations. These matched the vertical distribution of the dinoflagellate symbionts hosted by M. pharensis, with Symbiodinium ITS2 type B7 in the shallows but type B15 in the deep habitats, suggesting symbiont-related disruptive selection. Recurrent non-monophyly of Madracis taxa and high levels of shared polymorphism reflected in ambiguous phylogenetic networks indicate that hybridization is likely to have played a role in the evolution of the genus. Using coalescent forward-in-time simulations, lineage sorting alone was rejected as an explanation to the SRP54 genetic variation contained in Madracis mirabilis and Madracis decactis (species with an old fossil record), showing that introgressive hybridization has taken place between these species, either directly or through the gene pool of other Madracis taxa. Madracis widespread non-monophyly and the absence of statistical divergence between some species suggest that introgressive hybridization plays an important role in the evolution of the genus. Different reproductive traits and symbiont signatures of taxa forming distinct genetic clusters also point to the same conclusion. We suggest that Madracis morphospecies remain recognizable because introgressive hybridization is non-pervasive and/or because disruptive selection is in action.|
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