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faculty: "FMG" and publication year: "2008"
| Authors||M.B. Powers, P.M.G. Emmelkamp|
|Title||Virtual reality exposure therapy for anxiety disorders: A meta-analysis|
|Journal||Journal of Anxiety Disorders|
|Faculty||Faculty of Social and Behavioural Sciences|
|Institute/dept.||FMG: Psychology Research Institute|
|Abstract||There is now a substantial literature investigating virtual reality exposure therapy (VRET) as a viable treatment option for anxiety disorders. In this meta-analysis we provide effect size estimates for virtual reality treatment in comparison to in vivo exposure and control conditions (waitlist, attention control, etc.). A comprehensive search of the literature identified 13 studies (n = 397) that were included in the final analyses. Consistent with prediction the primary random effects analysis showed a large mean effect size for VRET compared to control conditions, Cohen's d = 1.11 (S.E. = 0.15, 95% CI: 0.82–1.39). This finding was consistent across secondary outcome categories as well (domain-specific, general subjective distress, cognition, behavior, and psychophysiology). Also as expected in vivo treatment was not significantly more effective than VRET. In fact, there was a small effect size favoring VRET over in vivo conditions, Cohen's d = 0.35 (S.E. = 0.15, 95% CI: 0.05–0.65). There was a trend for a dose–response relationship with more VRET sessions showing larger effects (p = 0.06). Outcome was not related to publication year or sample size. Implications are discussed.|
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